The adaptation of student engagement scale in higher education

Student engagement scale in higher education



The aim of this study is to adapt the Student Engagement Scale into Turkish higher education context. The scale has two previous versions whose aims are to determine the level of engagement of students studying at different universities (American-Canadian & Australian-New Zealand). Both scales provide significant benefits related to the quality of higher education regarding both students’ achievement high-quality learning outcomes and the development of universities regarding various aspects. In the current study, the scale called the Turkish Higher Education Student Engagement Scale (HES) was adapted from the Australasian version called SES2 so that the quality in higher education in Turkey can be achieved in a similar fashion. During the adaptation process, two data sets obtained from totally 526 students studying at a state university in Turkey were used. The first data set was used for both the explanatory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), respectively. The second data set was used for another CFA to prove its validity on the second dataset. It reveals that the scale has a structure of seven sub-factors, which is different from the previous versions. The scale provides valuable information regarding the determination of students’ level of engagement in higher education in both western countries and Turkey.

Keywords: students’ engagement; adaptation of student engagement scale; higher education; quality standards of engagement

Author Biographies

Akın Efendioğlu, Assoc. Prof. Dr.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Akın Efendioğlu has been working as a researcher at Cukurova University, Faculty of Education at the Department of Elementary School Teaching for more than 19 years. His research interests focus on learners’ active participation in school and learning environment, creating effective instructional environment for teaching in K-12 education settings, teacher education, curriculum and instruction.


Tuğba Yanpar Yelken, Prof. Dr.

Prof. Dr. Tuğba Yanpar Yelken has been working as a researcher at Mersin University, Faculty of Education at the Department of Curriculum and Instruction for 26 years. Her research interests focus on instructional design, curriculum and instruction, teacher education, active learning.