The Effect of Kindergarteners’ Perceptions of School on their Attitudes towards School

Şule Yüksel Ertuğrul Seçer, Nadir Çeliköz


The purpose of this paper is a) to investigate kindergarteners’ perception of "school" through the impressions and images and b) to find out the effect of these perceptions on their attitudes towards school in cooperation with kindergarten teachers. This qualitative study is based on metaphor technique; the data of which is derived from kindergarteners’ perceptions of "school", researcher’s own observation of kindergarteners, and focus group interview with these kindergarteners’ teachers. The research group for metaphors consists of thirty-five kindergarteners from two different classes in a state kindergarten in Bursa. Thirty-three relevant, twenty-one different metaphors are collected from the data. These metaphors are grouped under six different conceptual categories according to their common features. In addition, several interviews are carried out with the kindergarteners’ teachers to determine the effect of these perceptions on kindergarteners’ attitude towards school. According to the analysis of the data collected from metaphor study, kindergarteners mostly perceive "school" as a ‘homelike’ place to live in comfortably and happily beside learning new things and playing games. Only five kindergarteners regard “school” negatively, and are detected to have attitudinal and disorientation problem. Determining the ways to cope with the negative attitudes of these five kindergarteners to school can be the focus of a further study.

Full Text:



Aral, N., Kandır, A., & Can Y.M. (2002). Okul öncesi eğitim ve okul öncesi eğitim programları. İstanbul: Ya-Pa Yayınları.

Aristo (2008). Poetika. Trans. İsmail Tunalı . Remzi Kitabevi, İstanbul, (pp.59-60).

Aydin, İ. S., Pehlivan, A. (2010). Türkçe Öğretmeni Adaylarının “Öğretmen” ve “Öğrenci” Kavramlarına İlişkin Kullandıkları Metaforlar. Turkish Studies International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkish Volume 5(3)

Balci, A. (1999). Metaphorical images of school: School perceptions of students, teachers and parents from four selected schools in Ankara. Middle East Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara.

Bjorklund, D.F., Causey, K.B., (2012). Children’s thinking, cognitive development and individual differences. London: Sage Publication.

Celikten, M. (2006). Kültür ve öğretmen metaforları. Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 21(2), (pp.269-283).

Cohen, J. (2006). Social, emotional, ethical and academic education: Creating a climate for learning, participation in democracy and well-being. Harvard Educational Review, 76(2), 201-237.

Essa, L.V. (2003) Introduction to early childhood education (4th ed.). Clifton: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Eraslan, L. (2011). Sosyolojik metaforlar. Akademik Bakış Dergisi. Uluslararası Hakemli Sosyal Bilimler E-Dergisi, (27).

Garcia-Sanchez, J.-N. & de Caso-Fuertes, A.-M. (2005). Comparison of the effects on writing attitudes and writing self-efficacy of three different training programs in students with learning disabilities. International Journal of Educational Research, 43(4-5), 272-289.

Gardner Howard E., (2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons in theory and practice. New York: Basic Books.

Gray, J., & Mclellan, R. (2006). A matter of attitude? Developing a profile of boys' and girls' responses to primary schooling. Gender and Education, 18(6), 651-672.

Herr, J., (2002). Working with young children. Tinley Park, IL: The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

Holfve-Sabel M., (2006). A comparison of student attitudes towards school, teachers and peers In Swedish comprehensive schools now and 35 years ago. Educational Research, 48(1), 55-75. Kendall, P.C. (2000). Issues facing the disorders of childhood, in childhood disorders. Hove: Psychology Press.

McGill-Franzen, A., (2006). Kindergarten literacy: Matching assessment and instruction in kindergarten. New York: Scholastic.

MEB, (2006). 36-72 ay erken çocukluk eğitimi program kitabı. Ankara: MEB Yayınevi.

Merisuo-Storm, T. (2007). Pupils’ attitudes towards foreign language learning and the development of literacy skills in bilingual education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(2), 226-235.

Oxford, R. L., Tomlinson, S., Barcelos, A., Harrington, C., Lavine, R. Z., Saleh, A., Longhini, A. (1998). Clashing metaphors about classroom teachers: Toward a systematic typology for the language teaching field. System, 26, 3-50.

Midgley, W., Trimmer, K., (2013). Walking the Labyrinth. A metaphorical understanding of approaches to metaphors for, in and of education research, Midgley. W., Trimmer, K., Davies. A. (Eds), Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, UK, 1-10.

Mooney, C., G., (2000). Theories of childhood: An introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget & Vygotsky.

Morris, C.G. & Maisto, A.A. (2005) biological basis of behavior. Psychology: An introduction, 12th edn. Upper Saddle River: Pearson. Redleaf Press.

National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Nielsen, M.D. (2006). Teaching young children. A guide to planning your curriculum, teaching through learning centers, and just about everything else. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Papanastasiou, C., & Papanastasiou, E .C. (2004). Major influences on attitudes toward science. Educational Research and Evaluation, 10(3), 239-257.

Saban, A. (2004). Giriş düzeyindeki sınıf öğretmeni adaylarının öğretmen kavramına ilişkin ileri sürdükleri metaforlar. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(2), (pp.31-155).

Saban, A. (2009). Öğretmen adaylarının öğrenci kavramına ı̇lişkin sahip oldukları zihinsel ı̇mgeler. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(2).

Sahin, B.K., Sak, R., Sahin, İ.T., (2013). Parents' views about preschool education, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 89, 288 – 292.

Sainsbury, M., & Schagen, I. (2004). Attitudes to reading at ages nine to eleven. Journal of Research in Reading, 27, 373-386.

Schleicher, A., (2013). What do students think about school? The Huffington Post, March 06.

Schweinle, A., Meyer, D. K., & Turner, J. C. (2006). Striking the right balance: Students’ motivation and affect in elementary mathematics. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(5), 271-293.

Sennett, R. (1980) Authority, New York: Vintage Books.

Sezer, E. (2003). Dilde ve Edebiyatta “Yol” Metaforu. Kitaplık, 65, September, (pp.88-92).

Shuell, T. J. (1990). Teaching and learning as problem solving. Theory into practice.

Usakli H., (2010). Early Childhood Education: The case of Turkey Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 11-2, 215-218.

Thornburg, H., (1985). Early adolescents' attitudes toward school. The High School Journal, University of North Carolina Press, 69 (1), 31-38.

Wang, Y. (2000). Children's attitudes toward reading and their literacy development. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27(2), 120-129.

Wigfield, A., Eccles, J.S., (2000). Expectancy–value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 68–81.

Wilkins, J. L. M., & Ma, X. (2003). Modeling change in student attitude toward and beliefs about mathematics. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(1), 52-63.

Wortham, S.C. (2006) Early childhood curriculum. developmental bases for learning and teaching. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

  Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Copyright © 1986 - 2017 by World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI)
ISSN 1562-0506