Use of in-class variables in Social Studies courses

Social Studies courses


  • Ramazan Bulut Afyon Kocatepe University
  • Dr.Gurbuz Ocak Afyon Kocatepe University


This research aims to determine the use of classroom variables in social studies teaching based on the observations of social studies teacher candidates. In the study Phenomenological research design, and qualitative method were utilized. Criterion sampling and snowball sampling techniques, which are among purposive sampling methods, were used to determine the study group. The data were collected using the focus group interview technique via a semi-structured interview form developed by researchers. After the necessary permissions were obtained, the interviews with the participants were recorded and transcribed in written. Content analysis was conducted on the data obtained from the participants. The results revealed that social studies teachers’ preferences of strategies, methods, and techniques were presentation, lecture, question-answer, and brainstorming in the teaching of social studies courses. Looking at the roles of teachers and students in the classroom, the teacher had an active role for distributing information, asking questions, classroom management, encouraging participation, and drawing attention to important points. Students, on the other hand, seemed to have passive roles, listening to what the teacher says, answering questions, and taking notes. Considering the use of materials in the Social Studies course, it was revealed that teachers generally used easily accessible materials such as books and maps, some teachers did not make use of computers, projectors, and interactive boards although they had the opportunity to use them, and even though some teachers wanted to use various materials in the lesson, it appeared that they could not make use of the necessary materials for the lesson due to the limited facilities of the school and the classroom. Another conclusion obtained from the research was that various strategies, methods, and techniques could not be used in the course due to the crowded classes, classroom management problems.