Causes of Dropout Rate at Primary Level in Pakistan

Dr. Dawood Shah, Dr. Ghulam Haider, Tahir Taj

Abstract


The study was designed to investigate the causes of dropout at primary level in Pakistan. Descriptive research method was adopted by using both quantitative and qualitative techniques for data collection. The study sought to get the opinion of education managers, teachers, parents and community members on various factors causing high dropout at primary level. Data was collected from 208 education managers and 291 primary school teachers. Twelve districts and 96 schools across the country were included in the sample. Moreover, focus group discussion was held with community members and parents in each sample school and district to solicit their opinion about causes of dropout. All the possible factors causing dropout were grouped into socio-economic factors, physical factors, geographical factors, teacher related factors, family related factors, teaching learning material related factors, administrative related factors, child related factors, and facilities in schools related factors.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alif Ailaan. (2014). 25 Million Broken Promises: The Crisis of Pakistan’s Out-Of-School Children. Islamabad: Alif Ailaan.

Attaullah, M. (2000). Causes of Dropout in Government High Schools for Boys, M.Ed. Unpublished Thesis, IER, University of Peshawar.

Bhatti, F., R. and Malik A. Naveed. (2011). Insights from a Quantitative Survey in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. RECOUP Working Paper No. 39. Centre for Education and International Development, University of Cambridge.

Coleman, H. and Capstick, T. (2012). Language in Education in Pakistan: Recommendations For Policy and Practice. British Council.

Dawn (2015). Most of Hazara schools destroyed in 2005 quake awaiting reconstruction. October 08.

Government of Pakistan (1998). National Education Policy 1998. – Islamabad: Ministry Federal Education and Professional Training.

Government of Pakistan (2009). National Education Policy 2009. – Islamabad: Ministry Federal Education and Professional Training.

Government of Pakistan (2014). Pakistan Education for ALL, Review Report 2015. - Islamabad: NEMIS/Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM).

Government of Pakistan (2016). Pakistan Education Statistics 2014-15. – Islamabad: NEMIS/ Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM).

Government of Pakistan (2017). Pakistan Education Statistics 2015-16. – Islamabad: NEMIS/Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM).

Government of Pakistan. (2017). Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2016-2017. – Islamabad: Ministry of Finance.

Government of Pakistan. (2018). Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2017-2018. – Islamabad: Ministry of Finance.

Graeff-Martins, A.S. Oswald, S.H. Comassetto, J.O. Kieling, C. Goncalves, R.R.Rohde, L.A. (2006). A package of interventions to reduce school dropout in public schools in a developing country: A feasibility study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, (8), 442-449 held at Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington D.C. on April 15, 2005. News articles

HEART. (2011) Health and Education Advice Resource Team. Helpdesk Report: Mother Tongue Education and Girls and Poor Children.

Horn, L. (1992). A Profile of Eighth Graders; National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Statistical Analysis Report. - Washington DC: National Center for Educational Statistics, Office of Department of Education. http://www.ilmideas2.pk

Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi. (2014). Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2014. - Lahore: South Asian Forum for Education Development (SAFED).

Jatoi, H. and Hussain, K. S. (2010). Non-Functional School in Pakistan: Does Monitoring System have an Impact? – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

Jatoi, H. and Hussain, K. S. (2010). Role of School Council in Development of Secondary School (Case Study). – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

Jones, A. and Naylor, R. (2014). The Quantitative Impact of Armed Conflict on Education in Pakistan: Counting the Human and Financial Costs. CFBT Education Trust.

Kamal, A. (2002). High Dropout rate, Books and Authors, The Daily Dawn. - Karachi: May 5, 2002.

Khan, N. et al, (2017). Financing in Education Sector (Public and Private) 2016-17. – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

Khichi, M. K. et al, (2015). Feasibility Study for Creation of Management Cadre in Education. – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

Khichi, M. K. et al, (2015). Financing in Education Sector (Public and Private) 2015-16. – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

Lewin, K. M. (2011). Making Rights Realities: Researching Educational Access, Transitions and Equity. CREATE Synthetic Report. Centre for International Education, University of Sussex.

Mohsin, A.O., Aslam, M., & Bashir, F. (2004). Causes of dropouts at the secondary level in the Barani areas of the Punjab (a case study of Rawalpindi district). Journal of Applied Sciences, 4 (1); 1s55158.http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2004.155.158.

PARWAAN. (2016). Magnifying the Gaps Situation Analysis: Early Childhood Education and Development. - Islamabad: Pakistan.

Rumberge, W.R, (2001). Who Drops out of school and why? Papered for the national Research Council, Committee on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity Workshop. Washington DC. Shah, R. et al (2015). Causes of Dropout at Primary Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gomal University Journal of Research, Vol. 31 (1), June 2015; 166-173.

Shami, P. A. and Hussain, K. S. (2004a). Access and Equity in Basic Education. – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

Shami, P. A. and Hussain, K. S. (2005b). Access and Equity in Basic Education. – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

Shami, P. A. and Hussain, K. S. (2006). Elementary Education in Pakistan. – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

Shami, P. A. and Hussain, K. S. (2006c). Access and Equity in Basic Education. – Islamabad: Academy of Education Planning and Management.

UK Aid. (2017) Ilm Ideas 2- Problem Brief- Retention, Cambridge Education , UK Aid

UNESCO. (1984). The Dropout Problem in Primary Education, UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok

UNICEF. (2010). Children in Pakistan Every Child’s Right - Responding to the Floods in Pakistan. New York: UNICEF

UNICEF. (2016). Country Report 2015-16 Pakistan: Early Childhood Education and Development: PARWAAN. - New York: UNICEF

Usha .S,Davi (1989). Education in Rural Areas, Calcutta


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


  Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Copyright © 1986 - 2017 by World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI)
ISSN 1562-0506