Pre-service English Language Teachers in terms of Their Orientations of Motivation in Turkey’s Context

Tarık Yütük


This paper seeks to investigate motivational orientations of Turkish prospective (pre-service) English language teachers in a descriptive way. In a state university in Turkey, 35 male and 90 female pre-service English language teachers participated in the study. These participants were 38 freshmen, 69 junior, and 18 senior students. A motivation scale adapted from Gobel and Mori (2006) was administered to the participants. The results showed that pre-service English language teachers have a high level of the intrinsic, integrative, and instrumental motivational orientations for learning English except the extrinsic one. Moreover, although the female participants displayed higher motivation than their male counterparts, the difference was not found robust enough excluding the intrinsic motivation. Moreover, it was obtained that the motivation levels of learners showed fluctuations in the course of time, which is congruent with previous studies. Lastly, the findings were further interpreted and elaborated within the discussion part.

Full Text:



Boo, Z., Dörnyei, Z., & Ryan, S. (2015). L2 motivation research 2005-2014: Understanding a publication surge and a changing landscape. System 55, 145-157.

Cangelosi, J. S. (1988). Classroom Management Strategies: Gaining and maintaining students’ cooperation. New York: Longman.

Carreira, J. M. (2011). Relationship between motivation for learning EFL and intrinsic motivation for learning in general among Japanese elementary school students. System, 39, 90-102.

Dörnyei, Z. & Otto, I. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics, 4, 43-69.

Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications. Language Learning, 53, 3-32.

Dörnyei, Z. & Guilloteaux, M, J. (2008). Motivating language learners: A classroom-oriented investigation of the effects of motivational strategies on student motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 42, 55-78.

Dörnyei, Z. and Ryan, S. (2015). The psychology of second language acquisition: Revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Erten, I. H. & Burden, R. L. (2014). The relationship between academic self-concept, attributions, and L2 achievement. System, 42, 391–401.

Gardner, R. C., Masgoret, A.–M., Tennant, J., & Mihic, L. (2004). Integrative motivation: Changes during a year-long intermediate-level language course. Language Learning 54, 1–34.

Hernandez, T. (2006). Integrative motivation as a predictor of success in the intermediate foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 39, 605-617.

Masgoret, A., -M. & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53, 123-163.

Meece, J. L., Glienke, B. B, & Burg, S. (2006). Gender and motivation. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 351 – 373.

Mori, S., & Gobel, P. (2006). Motivation and gender in the Japanese EFL classroom. System, 34, 194-210.

Öztürk, G. & Gürbüz, N. (2013). The impact of gender on foreign language speaking anxiety and motivation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 654 – 665.

Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67 doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020.

Ushioda, E. (2008). Motivation and good language learners. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vandergrift, L. (2005). Relationships among motivation orientations, metacognitive awareness and proficiency in L2 listening. Applied Linguistics, 26, 70–89 doi:10.1093/applin/amh039

Williams, M, & Burden, R. L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yeung, A. S., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2011). Primary and secondary students’ motivation in learning English: Grade and gender differences. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 246–256.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

  Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Copyright © 1986 - 2017 by World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI)
ISSN 1562-0506