Gender Differences in Perception of Body, Expressions of Body Image and Body Image Coping Strategies among Turkish Adolescents

Mehmet Avcı, Çiğdem Keven Akliman

Abstract


The importance of body change during the adolescence has been well documented within the literature. In this study, gender differences were investigated in the use of adolescents' perceptions of all body images, body parts and functions, and strategies of coping with body image. Data were collected from 710 first-year students from different high school types with an age range of 14-15. The results indicated that body image of female adolescents showed a significant difference in negative direction compared to male adolescents. Males showed a significant positive difference compared to girl adolescents. Results also demonstrated that male adolescents showed significant positive difference in the use of the avoidance strategy compared to female adolescents. Regarding body image coping strategies, there was a significant positive difference in the use of the avoidance strategy in favor of males. The results with implications for future research and practice are addressed.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akliman, K., Ç. (2015). In The Context of Positive Psychology and Positive Psychotherapy,

Examining The Effectiveness of The Psychological Counseling Program with The Development of A Positive Body İmage in Adolescents (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Social Science İnstitute, Ufuk University, Ankara.

Andersen, A., Cohn, L., & Holbrook, T. (2010). Making weight: Men's conflicts with food,

weight, shape and appearance. Gurze Books.

Caccavale, L. J., Farhat, T., & Iannotti, R. J. (2012). Social engagement in adolescence

moderates the association between weight status and body image. Body İmage, 9(2), 221-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.01.001

Cafri, G., Thompson, J. K., Ricciardelli, L., McCabe, M., Smolak, L., & Yesalis, C. (2005).

Pursuit of the muscular ideal: Physical and psychological consequences and putative risk factors. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(2), 215-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.09.003

Cafri, G., & Thompson, J. K. (2004). Measuring Male Body Image: A Review of the Current

Methodology. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5(1), 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1524-9220.5.1.18

Cash, T. F. (2008). The body image workbook: An 8-step program for learning to like your

looks. New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Cash, T. F., Santos, M. T., & Williams, E. F. (2005). Coping with body-image threats and

challenges: Validation of the Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58(2), 190-199. http:// dx. doi.org/ 10.1016/j.Jpsychores . 2004.07.008

Cash, T. F., & Pruzinsky, T. (2004), “An Information Processing Perspective on Body

Image”, Body Image. A Handbook of Theory, Research & Clinical Practice, Guilford Press.

Cash, T. F., Morrow, J. A., Hrabosky, J. I.,& Perry, A. A. (2004). How has body image

change? A cross-sectional investigation of college women and men from 1938 to 2001. Journal of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 72, 1081-1089. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.72.6.1081

Cash, T. F., & Szymanski, M. L. (1995). The development and validation of the Body-Image

Ideals Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64(3), 466-477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6403_6

Cohane, G. H., & Pope, H. G. (2001). Body image in boys: A review of the literature.

International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(4), 373-379. http: // dx. doi. org/10. 1002/eat.1033

Coyl, D. D. (2009). Kids really are different these days. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(6), 404-407.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172170909000605

Davison, T. E., & McCabe, (2006). Adolescent Body İmage and Psychosocial Functioning.

Journal of Social Psychology, 146, 15-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.146.1.15-30

Doğan, T., Sapmaz, F., & Totan, T. (2011). Adaptation of the scale of body image-coping

strategies to Turkish: Validity and reliability study. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 12, 121-129.

Epel, E. S., Spanakos, A., Kasl‐Godley, J., & Brownell, K. D. (1996). Body shape ideals

across gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, race, and age in personal advertisements. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19(3), 265-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199604)19:3%3C265::AID-EAT5%3E 3.3.CO;2-2

Furnham, A., Badmin, N., & Sneade, I. (2002). Body image dissatisfaction: Gender

differences in eating attitudes, self-esteem, and reasons for exercise. The Journal of Psychology, 136(6), 581-596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980209604820

Gerner, B., & Wilson, P. H. (2005). The relationship between friendship factors and

adolescent girls' body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37(4), 313-320. http://dx .doi .org /10.1002 /eat.20094

Gilbert, S. C., Thompson, A. R (2002). “Body Shame İn Childhood And Adolescence:

Relations To General Psychological Functioning And Eating Disorder”, İn Gilbert, Paul, and Jeremy Miles, (Eds.) Body Shame: Conceptualisation, Research And Treatment, Psychology Press, 2002.

Graham, M. A., Eich, C., Kephart, B., & Peterson, D. (2000). Relationship among body

image, sex, and popularity of high school students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90(3), 1187-1193. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.2000.90.3c.1187

Grogan, S. (2008). “Promoting positive body image” Body Image. Understanding body

dissatisfactionin men, women, and children, Second edition, ed. Grogan . Psychology Press.

Grogan, S., & Richards, H. (2002). Body image: Focus groups with boys and men. Men and

Masculinities, 4(3), 219-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X02004003001

Gupta, C. (2013). The relation between body image satisfaction and self-esteem to academic

behaviour in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls and boys. Thesis of master degree. University of Manitoba, Canada.

Holland, L. A., Brown, T. A., & Keel, P. K. (2014). Defining features of unhealthy exercise

associated with disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 116-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.10.005

Hovardaog˘lu, S. (1993). Body Image Scale, psychiatry. Journal of Psychology and

Psychopharmacology, 1-26.

Johnson, W. G., Grieve, F. G., Adams, C. D., & Sandy, J. (1999). Measuring binge eating in

adolescents: adolescent and parent versions of the questionnaire of eating and weight patterns. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 26(3), 301-314. http://dx .doi.org/ 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199911)26:3%3C301::AID-EAT8%3E3.0.CO;2-M

Knauss, C., Paxton, S. J., & Alsaker, F. D.(2007). Relationships amongst body dissatisfaction,

internalisation of the media body ideal and perceived pressure from media in adolescent girls and boys. Body İmage, 4(4), 353-360.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.body im.2007.06.007

Levine, M. P., & Smolak, L. (2002). Body image development in adolescence. , In Cash,

Thomas F., and Thomas Pruzinsky (Eds) Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice, 74-82.

McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2001). Body image and body change techniques among

young adolescent boys. European Eating Disorders Review, 9(5), 335-347. http://dx . doi.org/10.1002/erv.389

McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. A. (2003). Body image and strategies to lose weight and

increase muscle among boys and girls. Health Psychology, 22(1), 39. http://dx.doi . org/10.1037/0278-6133.22.1.39

McCabe, M. P., Ricciardelli, L. A., & Banfield, S. (2001). Body image, strategies to change

muscles and weight, and puberty: Do they impact on positive and negative affect among adolescent boys and girls?. Eating Behaviors, 2(2), 129-149. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/S1471-0153(01)00025-3

Morrison, T. G., Morrison, M. A., Hopkins, C., & Rowan, E. T. (2004). Muscle Mania:

Development of a New Scale Examining the Drive for Muscularity in Canadian Males. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5(1), 30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1524-9220.5.1.30

Neumark-Sztainer, D., Levine, M. P., Paxton, S. J., Smolak, L., Piran, N., & Wertheim, E. H.

(2006). Prevention of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: What next?. Eating Disorders, 14(4), 265-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640260600796184

Pope, H., Phillips, K. A., & Olivardia, R. (2000). The Adonis complex: The secret crisis of

male body obsession. Simon and Schuster.

Ricciardelli, L. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2004). A biopsychosocial model of disordered eating

and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent boys. Psychological Bulletin, 130(2), 179-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.2.179

Ridgeway, R. T., & Tylka, T. L. (2005). College Men's Perceptions of Ideal Body

Composition and Shape. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(3), 209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1524-9220.6.3.209

Rohlinger, D. A. (2002). Eroticizing men: Cultural influences on advertising and male

objectification. Sex Roles, 46(3), 61-74.

Rudd, N. A., & Lennon, S. J. (2000). Body image and appearance-management behaviors in

college women. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 18(3), 152-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0887302X0001800304

Sands, E. R., & Wardle, J. (2003). Internalization of ideal body shapes in 9–12‐year‐old girls.

International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33(2), 193-204.

Schooler, D. (2013). Early adolescent body image predicts subsequent condom use behavior

among girls. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 10(1), 52-61. http://dx.doi.org/10. 1007/s13178-012-0099-9

Secord, P. F., & Jourard, S. M. (1953). The appraisal of body-cathexis: body-cathexis and the

self. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 17, 343–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0060 689

Smolak, L. (2012). Appearance in childhood and adolescence. The Oxford handbook of the

psychology of appearance, 123-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/ 9780199580 521.013.0013

Stice, E., & Whitenton, K. (2002). Risk factors for body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls: a

longitudinal investigation. Developmental Psychology, 38(5), 669. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1037/0012-1649.38.5.669

Stice, E., Hayward, C., Cameron, R. P., Killen, J. D., & Taylor, C. B. (2000). Body-image and

eating disturbances predict onset of depression among female adolescents: a longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 438. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.438

Tylka, T. L., Bergeron, D., & Schwartz, J. P. (2005). Development and psychometric

evaluation of the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS). Body Image, 2(2), 161-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2005.03.001

Vander Wal, J. S., & Thelen, M. H. (2000). Eating and body image concerns among obese

and average-weight children. Addictive Behaviors, 25(5), 775-778. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/S0306-4603(00)00061-7

Vartain, L. R. Giant, C. L., & Passino, R. M. (2001). Ally McBeal vs Arnold

Schwarzenegger: Comparing mass media, interpersonal feedback and gender as predictors of satisfaction with body thinness and muscularity. Social Behaviar and Personality. 29, 711-723.

Yanover, T., & Thompson, J. K. (2008). Eating problems, body image disturbances, and

academic achievement: Preliminary evaluation of the eating and body image disturbances academic interference scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41(2), 184-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.20483


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


  Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Copyright © 1986 - 2017 by World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI)
ISSN 1562-0506